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  • Chapter 1. The term is a special medical concept.

  • Systematization of medical terms

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    Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан

    Центрально-Казахстанская Академия

    Факультет «языка и перевода»

    Кафедра «теории и практики английского языка»


    на тему: «Особенности перевода медицинских текстов »

    по дисциплине: «Теория перевода»

    по специальности «5B020700-Переводческое дело»

    Выполнила: студентка 2 курса

    группы: 18-01

    Бурова А.Б.
    Проверила: научный руководитель

    Тогайбаев А.А
    Оценка: _______________________


    (подпись научного руководителя)

    Караганды 2020
    Introduction 3

    1. History of exclamation mark 4

    1.1 Exclamation mark in other languages 6

    1.2 Exclamation mark used in various fields 9

    2. Тhe concept of exclamation 13

    2.1 Types and levels of politeness 14

    2.2 The main levels of exclamation 15

    3. The basic communicative values of English culture 17

    3.1 Emotions and exclamations 18

    3.2 The expression of exclamation in the English and Russian communicative cultures


    Conclusion 23

    References 25


    In connection with an increase in knowledge in science and technology, the need for everything new is growing. Therefore, there is a need to replenish the vocabulary with new definitions.

    Translation of medical texts is a complex research work in the field of language, as well as a specific specialty. Most often, we come across an annotation in which medical terms are added. Also, innovative medical literature covers a huge number of terms that arise in our time; some of the terms began to go out of use, as they are replaced by more modern terms. In connection with the progressive development of medicine, the introduction of science and technology, the achievements of scientific and technological progress, the discovery of the latest technology for diagnostics, various devices for medical use. When translating medical literature, accuracy and accuracy are necessary. The text must be translated with precision. Those who translate medical books, articles and annotations for medical equipment or medicines need to understand very precisely the meaning of the article that needs to be translated, and be able to accurately convey the meaning in the translated text. Such texts, unlike others, have their own specifics and difficulties. For example, when translating documents for citizens traveling abroad, when processing documents at foreign insurance companies. In such cases, a translation of the full medical history or extracts from it, conclusions, epicrisis, analyzes, about the transfer of requests to clinics and other medical institutions is done.

    The aim of this course paper is to describe the vocabulary of a limited sphere of use, doctoral documents on the example of annotation, the introduction of features of the use of medical terms in a non-specialized text.

    The tasks are:

    1. Describe vocabulary of a limited sphere of use

    2. To characterize the highly specialized medical terminology of the modern Russian language

    3. Compare medical terminology in annotations

    The object of the course paper is translation of medical texts into English and the main problems of translation.

    Theoretical importance is in the important role of the process of intercultural communication in view of expanding the boundaries of international cooperation, the formation of new requirements for the quality of the intercultural process aimed at achieving mutual understanding between representatives of different linguistic cultures.

    Practical importance the course paper related to the translation of medical texts, terms, abstracts and articles. As well as features of the translation of medical texts and moments causing the most common problems in translation.

    This course paper consists of introduction, 4 chapters, conclusion and bibliography.

    Chapter 1. The term is a special medical concept.

    According to Professor L. L. Nelyubin, “a term is a word or phrase adopted to accurately express a special concept or designate a special subject in a particular area of ​​knowledge. The terms differ from the words of everyday speech with a clear semantic delineation of boundaries and the specificity of the expressed concepts. ” [1]

     In addition, the term is a special concept. The accuracy of the terms allows you to distinguish them from other units of the language. The term is a lexical unit that calls the concept of a special field of knowledge, characterized by accuracy, independence from the context, brevity and unambiguity. The field of medicine refers to the scientific and technical literature and includes texts of medical histories, protocols of operations and diagnostics, prescriptions for medicines. "The style of science and technology exists in two forms: written and oral."

    In the modern community, great importance is given to the study of the language of science and to analysis of terminology. Many definitions are formed by rethinking colloquial vocabulary or by taking from other languages.

    Medical terminology is a combination of words and phrases that are used by specialists to determine scientific opinions in medicine and healthcare.

    The pronunciation of words or phrases of the term is represented by a sound complex. For the most part, the definitions are a fictitious name in the process of scientific activity.

    In modern medical terminology, the following main groups of terms are distinguished taking into account different linguistic origin, forms of writing and implemented at the state and international levels:

    1. originally Russian names;

    2. Names of Greek or Latin origin, which were taken from classical languages, and scientific neologisms were created artificially from lexical and word-forming material, for example: cirrhosis, stethoscope, phagocyte, leukemia, allergy;

    3. originally Western words, formed from languages ​​used in the West from their lexical material;

    4. terms in Latin (Terminitechnici) - unusual scientific designations, which are made out according to the rules of the Latin language.

    Thus, specialists who speak different languages ​​do not have difficulty understanding. Such examples of definitions have the opportunity to serve as the latest international nomenclatures that have a certain status. These include the Paris Anatomical Nomenclature, the Histological Nomenclature. Latin definitions for diseases, pathological conditions, symptoms and syndromes, not combined in official lists. Such definitions are permanent. Separate definitions are not universally recognized in state languages, for example, Spinabifidaanterior, situsviseeruminversus, carcinomainsitu, peros, perrectum, extempore.

    Since the 15th century, the significance and connection of Arabic medicine and the Arabic language began to lose its significance. A new Latin of the 15-16th century appeared, which later became the scientific language for all European countries. The creation of A. Celsus, first published in 1478, became one of the most active updates of this language. A. Vesalius conducted a systematic reform of terminologies in Latin. Since the late Renaissance, the Latin language as a language of medicine has adapted to the needs of the development of state languages. In the mid-19th century, Latin finally ceded its function to the state languages ​​of scientific communication while retaining the status name in science. Classical languages ​​have remained the main international sources for replenishing medical terminology. Nowadays, most of the new medical names are of Greek or Latin origin. Greco-Latin names, often found in terminology, change in accordance with the system and become indispensable.

    The compatibility of medical definitions with the terms used in combined sciences (biology, chemistry, physics, microbiology, genetics, psychology) is a huge microsystem that includes many thousands of drug names. The aggregate definitions of individual sciences and fields of knowledge that make up it form personal microsystems of terms. Each term is an element of a certain microthermal system (anatomical, therapeutic, obstetric, endocrinological, hematological, etc.). Occupying a certain space in the microsystem, any term is in fixed generic or other relationships with other terms of the provided microsystem. Instead, the definitions of various microsystems form definite structures of relations among themselves at the macro-system level.

    The active growth in the number of terms, conflicting intersections of many different microsystems, the lack of specific work to streamline individual microsystems - all this was complicated by the development of medical terminology in the second half of the 20th century. Initially, this includes the growth of the terminology fund, which led to clogging with inaccurate and unnecessary terms.

    The terminology of individual sciences consists of tens and hundreds of thousands of terms. These terms were involved in scientific circulation at different times, in different countries, sometimes within the framework of various scientific schools, which inevitably introduced an element of spontaneity into the emerging language of science. True, thanks to the systematic nature of knowledge and the efforts of scientists who constantly sought to streamline and systematize their scientific apparatus, it was possible to curb this element of spontaneity. However, as the systems of scientific concepts and the corresponding terminology became more complex, the need for a theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of term-creation and practical regulation of this process began to be felt. Thus arose the interdisciplinary branch of knowledge - terminology. The starting point in terminology is the position that the purpose of the term is to briefly, accurately and unambiguously express a scientific concept. For this, the term must satisfy several requirements:

    1. adequacy: the content of the term concept should correspond to modern scientific knowledge of the corresponding object;

    2. accuracy: the term concept in its content and volume should strictly differ from other concepts of this term system;

    3. unambiguity: only one concept should correspond to any term; only one term should correspond to any concept.

    In actual terminology, not all terms correspond to these requirements. Therefore, experts from various sciences, including medicine, pay great attention to streamlining and standardizing their professional language.
    Modern medicine is a highly branched and deeply differentiated branch of knowledge. Its terminological system consists of many subsystems, among which three leading ones stand out: anatomical and histological terminology; pharmaceutical terminology; clinical terminology. The use of terms is a prerequisite for language and science. Their development goes in parallel, since each new concept must be precisely fixed by a word-term.

    The terminology in the broad sense of the word is perceived as "part of the vocabulary of the language, covering the special vocabulary used in the field of professional activity of people." The terminology of a specific field of knowledge is defined as the system of terms of a given science or industry, correlated with the system of concepts of the corresponding field of knowledge. Medical terminology is the language spoken by doctors of various specialties. It should be clear to the reader and listener in relation to concepts. The most acceptable for existence in medical terminology should be considered those words that are accepted by most experts, understandable to everyone and reflect the essence of the phenomenon or subject. The semantic meaning of one or another term in medicine only becomes public domain when it is fixed by an exact term that does not allow different interpretations, simple, unambiguous. From the above, we can once again make sure that there is no unambiguous definition of the term “term”. Each scientist studying this problem is faced with the fact that each existing definition offers its own set of defining elements. Nevertheless, a generalization of all the definitions created at the moment makes it possible to create a holistic view of the concept of “term”.

      1. Systematization of medical terms

    The systematic formation of medical terms is necessary for the translation process due to the need to choose a more suitable phrase or word for translation. The distribution of any medical terms simplifies the choice.

    The medical term is considered an element corresponding to the microthermosystem (anatomical, histological, embryological, dermatological). Different terms consisting of a microthermal system and interconnections with each other, which shows a double trend. Further differentiation of medical sciences, and their growing interdependence, integration. In the XX century, the number of private microthermosystems has grown significantly, designating concepts related to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases that affect mainly individual organs and systems (endocrinology, pulmonology, urology, nephrology, hematology, arthrology, gastroenterology, abdominal surgery, neurosurgery). Impressive volumes over the past decade have been achieved by highly specialized lexicons: cardiology, oncology, radiology, immunology, medical virology, and hygiene sciences.

    And also, in many areas of the terminology of clinical medicine synonyms. Moreover, in some disciplines their number reaches from 25-40% of the entire terminological fund. The number of synonyms expressing certain concepts reaches 25 or more. There are especially many synonyms among the terms denoting diseases and syndromes.

    Synonymy is one of the problems of medical terminology. Synonyms in terminology are words and phrases that, separated by their own sound composition, express an identical scientific concept.

    The disordered medical terminology, both in Russian and in foreign languages, continues to be a serious problem in the exchange of scientific information, in its machine processing, makes big mistakes with adequate scientific translation.

    Not only medical professionals, but also translators should take part in translations.

    The division of definitions, as well as the division of the rest of the language, is a free set of options. The determining factor for the compilation of a particular system is the opinion of the author, based on scientific knowledge. The choice of this or that definition can only be suitability for this study. Based on data from a synchronous analysis of the word-building structure, it became possible to divide single-word terms into: simple (root), where the base is identical to the root; derivatives (affixes), including root and affix (s); complex, including two or more root morphemes. Below we turn to a detailed discussion of simple terms.

    Simple terms

    To nominate words that consist of a single morpheme, the modern linguistic paradigm uses the terms “simple word”, “non-derivative word”, “root word”, since these words are not derived from other words. The root morpheme (root) is the carrier of the “material lexical meaning of the word, its central part, which remains unchanged in the processes of morphological derivation;the simple, or non-derivative basis of the word, remaining after the elimination of all derivational and / or inflectional elements.

    Simple (root) words in our study are words that contain a non-derivative basis. Simple words are the basis for the formation of new words.Simple root words in the terminological systems of the Russian and German languages ​​are represented by nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Let us consider in more detail some examples.

    Noun terms.

    The analysis showed that in modern Russian simple noun terms are represented a little wider (69 lexical units) than in modern German .Rus. tooth, tongue, saliva, pulp, enamel, palate, mouth, lip, itching, boron, probe, paste, pin, bridge, seal, canine; him. Zunge “tongue”, Zahn “tooth”, Lippe “lip”, Sonde “probe”, Mund “mouth”, Zement “cement”, Paste “paste”, Stift “pin”, Brcke “bridge”, Krone “crown”, Plombe "seal", Plaque "plaque".

    It should be noted that simple noun terms are often represented by borrowings from various languages. So, in Russian there are borrowings from German (pin from it. Stift, boron from it.

    Bohrer et al.), Latin (pulp from Lat. Pulpa, etc.) and other languages ​​(enamel from French email).In German, borrowing is also a powerful source for the development of dental terminology. Along with national terms in German, there are simple terminological terms borrowed from other languages, for example: Paste from lat. pasta "pasta", Plaque from the French. plaque "plaque", etc.

    Verb Terms.

    When analyzing the actual material, we found that simple verb terms are found only in German (11 terminological units): fllen “fill, fill”, bohren “drill”, putzen “clean”, splen “rinse”, ziehen “remove (tooth ) ”, Schmerzen“ to hurt ”, kommen“ to erupt (about a tooth) ”, etc. In Russian, simple verb terms are represented by infinitive verbs that contain only suffixes of the initial form -and, -a, -e.

    These suffixes indicate only processuality, part of speech, but are not word-building elements: treat, clean (channel), ache, swallow, etc.

    Adjective terms.

    Analysis of the actual material showed that simple adjectives are used extremely rarely in dental terminology in both languages ​​studied. In Russian, we found only 2 lexical units, and as part of verbose terms, for example: a golden seal. In German, 3 units of a similar nature are recorded, representing a tracing-paper of the Russian term: weicher Gaumen “soft palate”, harter Gaumen “hard palate”, kleiner Backzahn “small molar tooth”.Next, we turn to the consideration of derived terms.The derived words in this study are represented by noun terms, adjective terms, verb verbs, and participles. We present the main results of the study of derived terms.

    Noun terms.

    Derived noun terms in the Russian language are found in dental terminology more often in comparison with the German language. Let us turn to the most productive models.

    In word formation of noun terms in Russian and German, suffixal, prefixal and prefixal-suffixal methods are recurrent.The suffix method of word formation is reduced to adding a suffix to the generating basis. This method is leading in the formation of nouns of the Russian language. Using the suffix method, the terminological units snapshot, hook, molar, etc. are formed in the Russian language.The most active in Russian is marked with suffixes: кчистка, кюретка, пластинка, шейка, резинка) и (коронка, -анифторирование, пломбирование, полоскание, жевание, глотание). При этом следует отметить, что в первых трех словах сами производящие основы являются осложненными, поскольку включают с свою структуру иноязычный суффикс глаголов -иров- (фторирование, пломбирование) или суффикс -к- (полоскание).

    In German, in the formation of dental terms, productive suffixes are: -ung – Schdigung «повреждение», Schwellung «отек», Fllung «пломба», Zahnung «прорезывание», Splung «полоскание», Betubung «обезболивание»; -er – Stopfer «штопфер», Bohrer «бор». It should be noted that, in some terms, the -ung suffix joins complicated bases. So, in the word Schdigung «повреждение» the base of the noun is already derivative, i.e. complicated by the -ig suffix. In the term Betubung «обезболивание, анестезия» In the analysis of adjective terms formed in the prefixal-suffixal way in the Russian language, it was found that the prefix pri- and suffix -ev-, which refers to the gum, are involved in the formation of the adjective gingival.

    However, taking into account that the gingival (canal) is the producing basis in this term, it can be argued that the terminological nomination of the gingival is formed in a prefixal way.An analysis of derivative adjective terms in the studied languages ​​showed the presence of isolated examples demonstrating the prefix word formation method in the Russian language - alcohol-free, intra-root, intra-channel, anti-carious and atypical of this method for the German language.

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