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Учебнометодическое пособие Нижний Новгород 2006 ббк 81. 2 Англ. Д20 м19


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НазваниеУчебнометодическое пособие Нижний Новгород 2006 ббк 81. 2 Англ. Д20 м19
АнкорEnglish for Designers.doc
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The study of interior design, its development and change through history is a useful way both to explore the past and to make sense of the spaces in which modern life is lived.

Professional interior designers are expected to study design history, to know the practices of the past in the terms of “styles”, and to know the names and the nature of the contributions of those individuals who generated the most interesting and influential approaches to design.

escape – спасение

enclosure - ограждение

purpose – цель

to exert – оказывать

development – развитие

to explore – исследовать, изучать

contribution – вклад

approach – подход


2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

жизнедеятельность людей, вне дома, именно радость, отражать реальность, служить целям, со времен происхождения, оказывать влияние, вмещать, использовать пространство с пользой, изучать историю дизайна, знать правила употребления термина «стиль» в прошлом, суть вклада, влиятельный.


  1. True or false:

1). Human life activities are played out in interior spaces.

2). The very joy of being outside reflects the fact that we spend a greater part of our life outside.

3). Buildings and their interiors exert their influence only on the activities of people.

4). The study of interior design, its development and change through history is a useful way to explore the past.

5). Professional interior designers are expected to know the names of the people who contributed much to the development of the design.
4. Answer the questions:

1). Why do we like being out-of-doors?

2). What does the joy of being outside reflect?

3). What are the buildings and their interiors are planned for?

4). Why is it useful to study the history of the interior design?

5). Do you know what the term “style” means?


  1. Insert prepositions where necessary:

1). People spend a lot ___ their lives ___ interior spaces.

2). Buildings and their interiors influence ___ the activities and lives that they house.

3). One ___ the purposes ___ studying design history is to make sense ___ the spaces ___ which modern life is lived.


4). We must know the names ___ those individuals who generated the most interesting and influential approaches ___ design.

5). What offers the escape ___ life ___ enclosure?

Grammar


1. Find in the text the sentences in Passive Voice. Determine what tenses they are in. Transform these sentences from Passive into Active Voice:

Example: Activities and lives of people are influenced by the buildings and their interiors (Present Simple). – The buildings and their interiors influence activities and lives of people.
2. There are a lot of words in the English language that can be nouns and verbs without changes in spelling. Translate these pairs of words:

a play – to play

a house – to house

an approach – to approach

a change – to change

an escape – to escape

a plan – to plan

a design– to design

an offer– to offer

a study– to study

a practice– to practice

a style– to style

an influence– to influence

a sense– to sense
3. Find a word from each pair in the text and say what part of speech it is. If it is a verb state what tense and voice it is.

Example: In the modern world, human life activities are played out in interior spaces.

(are) played – a verb – Present Simple Passive Voice.

We may love being out-of-doors for the sense of open air and sky.

(the) sense – a noun.
TEXT 3
It is impossible to understand what interior design is without knowing the names of people who invented some details and were the first to use special building or decorative materials. Here are the names of some prominent people, whose contribution in the development of interior design is great and very influential.
Part 1

  1. Read the text.

Antoni Gaudi


In Barcelona, Spain, although there is a variety of work in the Art Nouveau style, the dominant figure of Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) stands out as the inventor of a highly personal vocabulary of flowing curves and unusual decorative details.

His 1904-1906 reconstruction of an older building, Casa Batllу, included a new facade of complex, bone-like forms with a fantastic roof line and, for some apartments, remarkable interiors. Paneled doors are studded with small mirrors of irregular shape; ceilings are of plaster in swirling curved forms.

Gaudi developed fantastic curving, sometimes bone-like, sometimes wiry forms for furniture designed to be custom made by skilled craftsmen for specific projects. The Guell Park (1905-1914) and unfinished Sagrada Familia church (1903-1926) exhibit Gaudi's fantastic and highly personal stylistic vocabulary on a major scale.

prominent – известный, выдающийся

Art Nouveau стиль модерн

dominantгосподствующий, преобладающий

to stand outвыделяться

vocabularyзд. разнообразие, область распространения

flowing - плавный

curveизгиб, кривая

include – включать в себя

remarkable – удивительный, замечательный

paneled - филенчатый

studded - усыпанный

plaster - гипс

swirling – извивающийся, изгибающийся, кружевной

wiry – проволочный, жилистый

skilled – квалифицированный, умелый

craftsmаn – ремесленник, мастер

on a major scale – в значительном масштабе
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

разнообразие работ, необычные декоративные детали, фасад, сложные, костно-подобные формы, линия крыши, квартира, неправильная форма, стать обычным делом, особый проект, незаконченный, демонстрировать.
3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is Antoni Gaudi famous for?

  2. What kind of doors did he use?

  3. What were the ceilings of his houses like?

  4. What forms did he develop for furniture?

  5. What are his most prominent works?



Part 2

  1. Read the text.

Gerrit Rietveld


The best known De Stijl ("the style") work was produced by Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964), whose Schruder House at Utrecht is the most complete realization of the movement's ideas. It is a rectilinear block made up of complex, interpenetrating planes of wall, roof, and protruding floor, with voids filled by glass in metal sash.

The (upper) main living floor is divided by a system of sliding panels that permit rearrangement to achieve varying degrees of openness. Built-in and movable furniture of Rietveld's design is geometric and abstract in concept. Only primary colors and black are introduced within the generally white and gray tones of most surfaces.

Because of its few members, short life, and limited accomplishments, De Stijl influence in the development of modernism has been less obvious than that of the pioneers in Germany and France.
movement – движение

rectilinear - прямолинейный

interpenetrating - взаимопроникающий

plane – плоскость

protrudingвыступающий, выдающийся

void - пустота

sash – рамка, обрамление

to divide – делить, разделять

sliding panels – раздвижные панели

built-in - встроенный

movable - передвижной

concept - понятие

primary color – основной цвет

surface - поверхность

limited - ограниченный

accomplishment - достижение

obvious - очевидный
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

наиболее полное воплощение, заполненный стеклом, жилой этаж, позволить переставить, меняющаяся степень открытости, из-за короткой жизни.

3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is Gerrit Rietveld famous for?

  2. What kind of building is his Schruder House?

  3. What permits to achieve varying degrees of openness?

  4. What kind of furniture did he use?

  5. What colors did he prefer to use?

  6. Why is the influence of De Stijl in the development of modernism not so obvious?
Part 3

1. Read the text.

Alvar Aalto


The most important of the "second-tier" pioneer modernists is the Finnish architect and designer Alvar Aalto (1898-1976). Aalto's career began amid the romanticism and Nordic nationalism of Lars Sonck and Eliel Saarinen, with its links to Neoclassicism and Jugendstil movements of the late 19th century.

Americans were able to see an Aalto design at first hand at the New York World's Fair of 1939. The box-like interior space of the Finnish exhibit was made remarkably interesting by the introduction of flowing, free-form walls. There was a wall of wood strips over the main exhibit space that screened additional exhibit space on an upper level.

A balcony restaurant with provision for film projection from a startling suspended free-form projection booth completed the exhibit. In spite of its small size and somewhat obscure location at the fair, Aalto's design attracted highly favorable critical comment.
amid - среди

link - связь

strip - полоска

exhibit space – выставочное пространство

to screen – загораживать, закрывать

startling – поразительный, потрясающий

suspended - подвесной

projection booth – проекционная будка

obscure – зд. невыгодный

favorable – благосклонный, благоприятный

comment – замечание, комментарий
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

вторая волна, карьера, конец 19-го века, напоминающее коробку внутреннее пространство, из первых рук, деревянные полоски, дополнительный, предусматривать проекцию фильмов, экспонат, несмотря на, невыгодное месторасположение, очень благосклонный.
3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is Alvar Aalto?

  2. Who influenced the works of Alvar Aalto?

  3. What was his introduction into design?

  4. What did a wall of wood strips help to make?

  5. What disadvantages did his work face at the New York World's Fair of 1939?

  6. What kind of comment did his work get at the New York World's Fair of 1939?
Part 4

1. Read the text.

Pierre Chareau


Pierre Chareau (1883-1950) is best known for his 1928-32 Maison de Verre (House of Glass) in Paris that made use of steel framing and large areas of glass block and plate glass.

His furniture designs included both chairs of rich woods and heavy upholstery and simple folding seating with metal framing and wicker seats and backs, suggesting a move from Art Deco to the International Style.
framing – рамка, обрамление

plate glass – зеркальное стекло

upholstery - обивка

folding - складной

wicker - плетеный
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

использовать, большие стеклянные полотна, дизайн мебели, дорогие сорта древесины, складные сидения, плетенные спинки, переход.
3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is Pierre Chareau best known for?

  2. What was he the first to use?

  3. What move did his furniture suggest?




  1. Find the synonyms in the text:

To be famous for, a sash, to contain, as well as, weighty, easy, to offer, a step.


Part 5

1. Read the text.

Philip Johnson



In 1949, aware of Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth house, Philip Johnson designed his own house at New Canaan, Connecticut, as an all glass-walled box with only a small cylindrical brick enclosure to house a bathroom and to provide a location for a fireplace.

The kitchen was a counter with lift tops giving access to equipment. The furniture was all of Mies's design, using brown leather on chrome frameworks, while major works of art introduced a variety of less rigorous forms into the space. The red tiles of the floor and the outward view into surrounding greenery establish color.

This "Glass House" has become a famous example of the possibilities of an open plan carried to its logical, extreme conclusion.
enclosure - ограждение

to house - размещать

a counter - стойка

access - доступ

leather – кожа

rigorous - строгий

tile - плитка

greenery - зелень

to establish – устанавливать, основывать

possibility - возможность

to carry – осуществлять, приводить в исполнение

2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

коробка с полностью стеклянными стенами, единственное небольшое кирпичное заграждение, предоставить место для камина, поднимающийся верх, доступ к оборудованию, хромированный каркас (рамка), разнообразие менее строгих форм, напольная плитка, внешний вид, окружающая зелень, доводить до логического заключения.
3. Answer the questions:

  1. What is the name of Philip Johnson’s own house?

  2. What kind of house is it?

  3. Whose design is the furniture in the house?

  4. What forms dominate in the interior space?

  5. What establishes color?
Part 6

1. Read the text.

Walter Gropius


The direct influence of International Style modernism increased hugely when several of the European leaders of the movement arrived in the United States.

Walter Gropius was the architect of his own house at Lincoln, Massachusetts (1937). A fine example of International Style design, it has a typical flat roof, large glass areas, and such details as an entrance supported by tubular columns, an external spiral stair, and generous use of glass block.

The white walls are, surprisingly, not of concrete or stucco but of wood boards typical of vernacular New England building. The interiors are of elegant simplicity and display many pieces of furniture by various members of the modern movement. The house is now landmarked and open to visitors.


to increase – возрастать, увеличиваться

entrance - вход

to support – поддерживать

tubular - трубчатый

external - внешний

spiral – спиральный, винтовой

generous - щедрый

concrete - бетон

stucco - штукатурка

vernacular - просторечный

landmarked – знаковый
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

прямое влияние, лидеры движения, прекрасный пример, плоская крыша, такие как, трубчатые колонны, винтовая лестница, деревянные доски, типично для, элегантная простота, открыт для посетителей.
3. Answer the questions:

  1. When did the direct influence of International Style modernism increase?

  2. What is Walter Gropius?

  3. What typical details did he use in his house?

  4. What building materials did he use for the outside part of his house?

  5. How can you characterize the interior design of his house?

  6. Is it a living house now?


4. Speak about one of the outstanding figures in the interior design and his achievements. The following words and phrases may help you:

to be a well-known designer/architect, to be famous for, to stand out as the inventor of, to be the first to use, to introduce, to make use of, to develop, to influence.
TEXT 4

1. Read the text.

What colors are the rooms in your house painted? Would it surprise you to learn that the colors around you can affect how you feel? Well, it’s true, color can drastically affect your mood. So it makes sense to surround yourself with colors you like and ones that will put you into a positive frame of mind.

Red, for example, is a strong color, so too much of it in a room can be overwhelming. But, in small amounts, red is energizing and can make us feel active and excited. Red is best used outside or in a room where we spend a short amount of time each day.

Orange can make us feel enthusiastic and talkative. Extroverts usually prefer this color because it makes them feel adventurous. Orange stimulates our appetites too, so it would be perfect for the kitchen or dining room.

Yellow is an uplifting color and can make us feel cheerful and happy. However, it is a color that should be used sparingly because too much can make us feel impatient.

Blue is the color that is most universally preferred, and blue rooms instil peacefulness so it is a good choice for studies or doctors’ waiting rooms. Blue can also help us feel calm and confident, but it suppresses our appetites so it’s only a good choice for the kitchen if you are on a diet.

Green is often used in hospitals because of its soothing properties. It has the power to make us feel relaxed and refreshed. Therefore, don’t paint a work area green because you won’t get much work done. Green is a good choice for bedrooms.

White is often used in doctors’ offices because it gives us an impression of cleanliness. However, it does nothing to relax us – we just feel cautious and nervous. It can also make us feel isolated and withdrawn.

Therefore, we should think carefully about our color schemes when the time comes to redecorate because different colors can affect how we feel in a number of ways. That said, though, we should rely on our taste and surround ourselves with the colors we like and feel comfortable with. Use your favourite colors to create a color scheme you know you can live with.
drastically – круто, резко

a positive frame of mind – положительный настрой

overwhelming - подавляющий

sparingly – скупо, нечасто

impatient - нетерпеливый

to instil – внушать, вселять

confident - уверенный

to suppress - подавлять

soothing - успокаивающий

property - свойство

cautious - осторожный

isolated - изолированный

withdrawn – сдержанный, замкнутый

to rely on – полагаться, рассчитывать
2. Find the English equivalents in the text:

слишком много, разговорчивый, смелый (авантюрный), бодрый (веселый), всемирно предпочитаемый, внушать спокойствие, хороший выбор, подавлять аппетит, чувствовать себя отдохнувшим и посвежевшим, рабочая зона, впечатление чистоты, сочетание цветов, полагаться на собственный вкус, любимый цвет.


  1. True or false:

  1. Red color always makes us feel active and excited.

  2. Orange can make us feel talkative.

  3. Yellow is a color that can improve our mood.

  4. Blue is the best choice for the kitchen.

  5. Blue is the most universally preferred color.

  6. Green would be perfect for a work area.

  7. White helps to relax.

Grammar


Compare the following adjectives: surprised/surprising and depressed/depressing. They are different in meaning.

We use the -ed form of the adjectives to describe people's feelings. People are surprised, bored, excited, etc. We use the -ing form of the adjectives to describe things or situations. They are depressing, boring, exciting, etc.

We often use the pattern I find + noun + -ing adjective. For example: I find the party really boring.


  1. Speak about different colors. Say how each of them influences us and our mood.

Example: I find red an exciting color. I’m excited by red.


  1. Match the color and the effect it has on people:

1)red

2)orange

3)yellow

4)blue

5)green

6)white

  1. talkative, adventurous

  2. calm, confident

  3. relaxed, refreshed

  4. cheerful, happy

  5. isolated, withdrawn

  6. active, excited


6. Make up your own sentences, using the following phrases:

… makes us …

… helps us …
Thanks to … we are …

Due to … we can be …

Example: Red color makes us active and excited.
7. What color would you paint these rooms? Why?

  1. a dining room

  2. a child’s room

  3. a play area

  4. a living room

  5. a bedroom

  6. a study

Example: I would paint a dining room orange because it stimulates the appetite.
8. Study the following idioms with different colors:

a red-letter day – a holiday

to do smth. in a blue moon – to do smth. very seldom

black and white – clear and simple

to be green – to be inexperienced

to tell a white lie – to deceive smb. In order not to hurt

to have green fingers – to be good at gardening
9. Fill in the correct idiom:

  1. Sophia goes to the cinema once ……… . She doesn’t like it very much.

  2. Angela definitely ……… – everything in her garden grows really well.

  3. He is a bit ……… - he hasn’t done much of that job before.

  4. They knew that if she found out the truth it would hurt her feelings so they told her a little ……… .

  5. She doesn’t want to say anything until she has seen the facts in ……… and ……….

  6. I’m always looking forward to ……… day.

10. Speak about the color schemes you would like to have in you room and explain why.
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