|Give examples of the following words or phrases in the sentences of your own:|
desktop computer, operating systems, set of tasks, any device, special-purpose applications.
Provide the main idea of the text in 3-5 sentences.
Lesson 2. A computer operating system
Before reading the following text, look at the words below. How many of them do you know? How many of them could you guess?
card slot — гнездо для платы
distributed — распределенные
interact — взаимодействовать
backbone — (зд.) магистраль сети
managing — координирующая
allocation of memory — распределение памяти
commonly — часто, в большинстве случаев
liaison — связь взаимодействия
efficiently — рационально
tools — инструментарий
interpreter — преобразователь данных
linker — компоновщик, редактор связи
debugger — программа отладки
to merge — объединять
bundle — связка
to accomplish — выполнять
application suite — прикладной программный комплекс (напр., Microsoft Office)
spreadsheet — крупноформатная (электронная) таблица template — шаблон
simulation — имитационное моделирование
Read and translate the text.
A collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform specific tasks on a computer system as desired by the user is known as Computer Software. Examples include application software such as word processors, which perform productive tasks for users, and system software.
They interact with the hardware to provide the necessary services for application software and middle ware that controls and coordinates distributed systems. Software also includes websites, programs, video games, etc that are coded by programming languages like C, HTML, Java, PHP, etc. An operating system is a program designed to run other programs on a computer. A computer operating system is its most important software. It is considered the backbone of a computer, managing both software and hardware resources. Operating systems are responsible for everything from the control and allocation of memory to recognizing input from external devices and transmitting output to computer displays. They also manage files on computer hard drives and control peripherals, like
printers and scanners. Commonly used operating systems for IBM compatible personal computers include Microsoft Windows, Linux, and UNIX variations. For Macintosh computers, Mac OS X, Linux, BSD, and some Windows variants are commonly used. Device driver software is small files that act like liaisons between hardware in a computer system and the operating system (OS). Hardware requires device drivers so that the OS can see the devices and handle them effectively and efficiently. Common components that require drivers include keyboards, mice, controllers, graphics cards, audio hardware, wireless cards, ports, card readers, card slots and CD/DVD drives. Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an application suite. Microsoft Office, Open Office org, and work 08, which bundle together a word processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, are typical examples. User written software tailors systems to meet the users’ specific needs. User written software includes spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, and graphics and animation scripts. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves.
Give the Russian equivalents for the following expressions.
Business software, computer hard drives, productive tasks, distributed systems, device driver software, an advanced graphical user interface, scientific simulations, email filters, animation scripts, a software bundle, common components, middle ware.
Pick out from the text all the word combinations with the following words (terms) and give their Russian equivalents:
Programming; computer; software; user; system; device; task.
Match the following English expressions (A-L) and their Russian equivalents (1-12):
A input peripherals B hardware compatible
C to use resources effectively
D software tools
E graphics editor
эффективно использовать ресурсы
макрооперация, определенная пользователем
периферийные устройства ввода
L hardware simulation
H antivirus package I test program template J output peripherals K user-defined macros
F debugging compiler
G educational software
периферийные устройства вывода
программа редактирования графической информации
обучающее программное обеспечение
антивирусный пакет программ
Sum up the contents of the text by answering the following questions:
What is OS? 2. What is it responsible for? 3. What operating system do you know? 4. What acts like liaisons between hardware in a computer system and the operating system? 5. What is the function of device driver software? 6. What for does hardware require device drivers?
What OS are used for personal computers? 8. What tools are provided by programming software? 9. What do typical applications include? 10. What is an application suite? 11. What does user written software include?
Read the text and do the assignments after it.
Linux is an operating system (very much like UNIX) that has become very popular over the last several years.
Linux is as much a phenomenon as it is an operating system. To understand why Linux has become so popular, it is helpful to know a little bit about its history. The first version of UNIX was originally developed several decades ago and was used primarily as a research operating system in universities. High-powered desktop workstations from companies like Sun proliferated in the 1980s, and they were all based on UNIX. A number of companies entered the workstation field to compete against Sun: HP, IBM, Silicon Graphics, Apollo, etc. Unfortunately, each one had its own version of UNIX and this made the sale of software difficult. Windows NT was Microsoft’s answer to this marketplace. NT provides the same sort of features as UNIX operating systems — security, support for multiple
What is Linux and why is it so popular?
CPUs, large-scale memory and disk management, etc. — but it does it in a way that is compatible with most Windows applications.
The entry of Microsoft into the high-end workstation arena created a strange dynamic. The proprietary operating systems owned by separate companies and the lack of a central authority in the UNIX world weaken UNIX, but many people have personal problems with Microsoft. Linux stepped into this odd landscape and captured a lot of attention.
The Linux kernel, created by Linus Torvalds, was made available to the world for free. Torvalds then invited others to add to the kernel provided that they keep their contributions free. Thousands of programmers began working to enhance Linux, and the operating system grew rapidly. Because it is free and runs on PC platforms, it gained a sizeable audience among hard-core developers very quickly.
In general, Linux is harder to manage than something like Windows, but offers more flexibility and configuration options.
Workstation — сетевой компьютер, использующий ресурсы сервера; to proliferate — распространять; high-end — мощный, профессиональный, высококачественный; высокого класса; с широкими функциональными возможностями.
Say what you have learnt from the text about Linux as an operating system.
Translate the 2-nd paragraph in writing.
Select the topical sentences in each paragraph of the text.
Summarise the text.
Read and translate the text. Do the assignments following it.
How Windows Vista works
The first version of Microsoft Windows hit the market in 1983. But unlike today’s versions of Windows, Windows 1.0 was not an operating system. It was a graphical user interface that worked with an existing OS called MS-DOS. Version 1.0 didn’t look much like newer versions, either — not even Windows 3.0, which many people think of as the first real version of Windows. Its graphics were simpler and used fewer colours than today’s user interfaces, and its windows could not overlap.
Windows has changed considerably since then. In the last 20 years, Microsoft has released numerous full-fledged versions of the operating system. Sometimes, newer versions are significantly different from older ones, such as the change from Windows 3.1 to Windows 95. Other new
releases have seemed more like enhancements or refinements of the older ones, such as the multiple consumer versions of the OS released from 1995 to 2001.
Microsoft’s newest version of its operating system is Windows Vista. For many users, upgrading to Vista won’t seem as dramatic as the upgrade from 3.1 to Windows 95. But Windows Vista has a number of new features, both in the parts that you can see and the parts that you can’t.
At its core, Windows Vista is still an operating system. It has two primary behind-the-scenes jobs:
Managing hardware and software resources, including the processor, memory, storage and additional devices.
Allowing programs to work with the computer’s hardware.
If all goes well, this work is usually invisible to the user, but it’s essential to the computer’s operation.