|This is built into a single chip.|
. which executes program instructions and coordinates..
. that is being executed.
. performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed
of its processor.
Translate the following text in writing.
The central processing unit (CPU) is the main IC chip on your computer’s motherboard. They come in different shapes, sizes and packages. Older CPUs came in the DIP format, and some 286s and early 386s were QSOPs, but what you’ll see the most are the flat, square PGA or SPGA chips.
CPU is considered the “brain” of your computer. It controls and directs all the activities of the computer, transmitting, receiving and processing data constantly. But like the “brain” of any project or
organization, it relies very heavily on its support group and advisors. There are a lot of factors involved that are related to the CPU and have an effect on the speed and performance of your machine. Some of these factors include:
Whether there’s a math coprocessor present and if it’s internal or external.
The clock speed of the system and of the CPU. The amount of internal cache and external cache available.
The bus architecture or supporting circuitry on the motherboard. Notes
DPI - Dual Inline Package - корпус с двумя рядами контактов; QSOP - Quarter Size Outline Package - корпус шириной в 1А дюйма; PGA - Pin Grid Array - корпус с матрицей игольчатых приводов; SPGA - Staggered Pin Grid Array - ступенчатая матрица приводов; clock speed - тактовая частота; cashe - «кэш», промежуточная память с большой производительностью
Lesson 3. Motherboard
Read and memorize the following words:
to attach - присоединять
to reside - постоянно находиться
to enable - позволять, делать возможным
to mediate - посредничать
chipset - набор микросхем
to handle - обрабатывать
firmware - встроенное программное обеспечение boot - самозагрузка; выполнять начальную загрузку heat sink - радиатор fan - вентилятор
controller - контроллер, устройство управления, диспетчер
additional core features - дополнительные основные особенности
bus - шина, магистральная шина
internal bus - внутренняя шина
external bus controller - контроллер внешней шины
Read and translate the text.
A motherboard is the central
printed circuit board (PCB) in some
complex electronic systems, such as
modern personal computers. The
motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board. It is also sometimes casually shortened to “mobo”.
The motherboard is the “body” of the computer. Components directly attached to the motherboard include CPU, chips, RAM, BIOS, buses and bus controllers.
The central processing unit performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the “brain’ of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heat sink and fan.
All the chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the chipset. The chipset mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory.
RAM stores all running processes (applications) and the current running OS. RAM Stands for Random Access Memory.
The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) includes boot firmware and power management. Operating system drivers handle the Basic Input Output System tasks.
Internal Buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for graphics and sound.
External Bus Controllers support ports for external peripherals. These ports may be controlled directly by the Southbridge I/O controller or are based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus (see the scheme of a typical chipset layout).
On most PCs, it is possible to add memory chips directly to the motherboard. You may also be able to upgrade to a faster PC by replacing the CPU chip. To add additional core features, you may need to replace the motherboard entirely.
Southbridge controller- Южный мост, контроллер-концентратор ввода- вывода (в отличие от Northbridge controller- северный мост, контроллер- концентратор памяти). Названия можно объяснить представлением архитектуры чипсета в виде карты. Процессор располагается на вершине карты, на севере. Соединен с остальной частью материнской платы через согласующий интерфейс и южный мост.
Give the English equivalents.
Circuit board, complex, electronic systems, motherboard, logic board, calculations, chipset, controller, to mediate, bus, external peripherals, Southbridge controller, external bus controller, printed circuit board.
Think of ways in which you can explain the following abbreviations. Translate them into Russian.
a) PCB; b) CPU; c) OS; d) RAM; e) PCI bus; f) BIOS
Review the text, find the key words or phrases in each passage and use them to summarise the text.
Find some additional information and write short reports about:
Bus controllers; b) Basic Input /Output Systems
Lesson 4. Buses and cards
The following word combinations will help you to translate this
expansion slot - расширительное гнездо, разъем expansion card - плата расширения edge connector - торцевой разъем compatibility card - плата совместимости front side bus - фронтальная шина
The main circuit board inside the computer system is the motherboard. It contains the processor, the memory chips, expansion slots, and controllers for peripherals, connected by buses — electrical channels that allow devices inside the computer to communicate with each other. For example, the front side bus carries all data that passes from the CPU to other devices.
The size of a bus, called bus width, determines how much data can be transmitted. It can be compared to the number of lanes on a motorway — the larger the width, the more data can travel along the bus. For example, a 64-bit bus can transmit 64 bits of data.
Expansion slots allow users to install expansion cards, adding features like sound, memory and network capabilities.
An expansion card (also an expansion board, adapter card or accessory card) in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. One edge of the expansion card holds the contacts (the edge connector) that fit exactly into the slot. They
establish the electrical contact between the electronics (mostly integrated circuits) on the card and on the motherboard. The primary purpose of an expansion card is to provide or expand on features not offered by the motherboard.
Expansion card types
TV tuner cards
Video processing expansion cards
Host adapters such as SCSI and RAID controllers
BIOS Expansion ROM cards
Physics cards (commercially available at present)
Disk controller cards (for fixed - or removable -media drives)
Interface adapter cards, including parallel port cards, serial port cards, multi-I/O cards, USB port cards, and proprietary interface cards
RAM disks, e.g. I-RAM
Memory expansion cards
Hard disk cards
Security device cards
Radio tuner cards
Answer the questions.
What term is used to refer to the main printed circuit board? 2. What is a bus? 3. What is the benefit of having expansion slots?
Translate the words of the same root. Define speech parts.
To expand - an expanse - expansible - an expansion - expansive; to compute - a computer - computation; to connect - a connector - connection; to establish - an establishment - established; to provide - providence - a provider - provident.
State the character of this text (scientific, popular science, newspaper article, encyclopaedia). Explain your choice.
Find some additional information about one of the expansion card types. Write a short report.
Lesson 5. Power Supply
Read and translate the text.
The component that supplies power to a computer is also called a power supply unit or PSU. Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical outlets. The power supply then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts the AC to DC. It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in most electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, do an adequate voltage-regulation job, so a computer is always susceptible to large voltage fluctuations.
Power supplies are rated in terms of the number of watts they generate. The more powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components.
Transcribe, practice the pronunciation and remember the translation of the following words:
power supply - блок питания
to plug - подключать
electrical outlet - электрическая розетка
spike - выброс, скачок
surge - помеха
susceptible - восприимчивый, чувствительный fluctuations - колебания
Find the key words that can help you to retell the text. Retell the
Make a report on:
The problem of computer system’s stability.
The problem of surge protection of the internal buses and the components.
Lesson 6. Hard disk
Read and translate the text.
Hard disk is a magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. The term “hard” is used to distinguish it from a soft, or floppy, disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks. A hard disk, for example, can store anywhere from 10 to more than 100 gigabytes, whereas most floppies have a maximum storage capacity of 1.4 megabytes.
A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. Each platter requires two read/write heads, one for each side. All the read/write heads are attached to a single access arm so that they cannot move independently. Each platter has the same number of tracks, and a track location that cuts across all platters is called a cylinder. For example, a typical 84-megabyte hard disk for a PC might have two platters (four sides) and 1,053 cylinders.
In general, hard disks are less portable than floppies, although it is possible to buy removable hard disks.
Consult the dictionary and find the definitions of the following terms. Write them down.
Floppy disk; b) hard disk; c) storage capacity; d) single access arm; e) platter; f) cylinder
Choose the suitable word to complete the sentence.
1. is the track location that cuts across all platters. 2.
is an item of factual information derived from measurement or research. 3.
is a rigid magnetic disk mounted permanently in a drive unit. 4.
is a unit of information equal to 1000 megabytes. 5. is one
of the circular magnetic paths on a magnetic disk that serve as a guide for
writing and reading data. 6. is a data storage medium that is
composed of a disk of thin, flexible magnetic storage medium.
Ask your group-mates questions on the text.
UNIT 3. STORAGE DEVICES Lesson 1. Computer storage
Read and translate the text.
A computer’s memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered “address” and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to “put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357” or to “add the number that is in cell 1357
to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595”. The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is up to the software to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.
In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers; either from 0 to 255 or -128 to +127. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two’s complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory as long as it can be somehow represented in numerical form. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.
The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. The registers are high-speed units of memory. One of the registers (the program counter, or PC) keeps track of the next instruction to be performed in the main memory. The other (the instruction register, or IR) holds the instruction that is being executed. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. Since data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer’s speed.
Computer’s main memory comes in two principal varieties: random access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes, so the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer’s initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM is erased when the power to the computer is turned off while ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer’s operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the software required to perform the task may be stored in ROM. Software that is stored in ROM is often called firmware because it is notionally more like hardware than
III. Study the following table. It might be useful for you.
software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM by retaining data when turned off but being rewritable like RAM. However, flash memory is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM so its use is restricted to applications where high speeds are not required.
In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer’s part.
Answer the questions.
1. What type of memory is temporary? 2. What type of memory is permanent and includes instructions needed by the CPU? 3. How can RAM be increased? 4. How many digits does a binary system use? 5. What is a bit? 6. What is a collection of 8 bits called? 6. What code do computers use to make calculations? 7. What two states do electronic circuits differentiate? 8. How do computers represent characters? 9. What units are used to avoid complex calculations? 10. Do you know what ASCII - pronounced /'$ski/ - stand for? 11. What memories are used in microcomputers?
Unit of memory
Exact memory amount
1 or 0
KB or K
1,024 KB, or 1,048,576 bytes
1,024 MB, or 1,073,741,824 bytes
1,024 GB, or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes