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Методические указания и учебные задания по профессиональноориентированному чтению для студентов 2 курса технических специальностей
particular battle space. Since at least World War II, achieving and maintaining air superiority has been a key component of victory in most modern warfare, particularly conventional warfare between regular armies (as opposed to guerrilla warfare), and the acquisition, training and maintenance of a fighter fleet represent a very substantial proportion of defense budgets for modern militaries.
Today is the age of the fifth-generation fighters which are characterized by being designed from the start to operate in a network- centric combat environment, and to feature extremely low, all-aspect, multi-spectral signatures employing advanced materials and shaping techniques. They have multifunction AESA radarsi with high-bandwidth, low-probability of intercept (LPI) data transmission capabilities. IRST sensors2 are incorporated for air-to-air combat as well as for air-to-ground weapons delivery. These sensors, along with advanced avionics, glass cockpits, helmet-mounted sights, and improved secure, jamming-resistant LPI datalinks3 are highly integrated to provide multi-platform, multi-sensor data fusion for vastly improved situational awareness while easing the pilot's workload. Avionics suites rely on extensive use of very high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) technology, common modules, and high-speed data bases. Other technologies common to this latest generation of fighters includes integrated electronic warfare system (INEWS) technology, integrated communications, navigation, and identification avionics technology, centralized “vehicle health monitoring” systems for ease of maintenance, and fiber optics data transmission. Overall, the integration of all these elements is claimed to provide fifth-generation fighters with a “first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability”.
1AESA radars — An Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), also known as active phased radar is a type of radar whose transmitter and receiver functions are composed of numerous small transmit/receive (T/R) modules. AESA radars feature short to instantaneous (millisecond) scanning rates and have a desirable low probability of intercept.
2IRST sensors — An infra-red search and track (IRST) system (sometimes known as infra-red sighting and tracking) is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation such as jet aircraft and helicopters.
3LPI datalinks — Low-Probability-of-Intercept datalinks
Avionics - авиационная радиоэлектроника; embedded computer - встроенный компьютер; fighter aircraft - самолет-истребитель; combat
- бой; bomber - бомбардировщик; colloquially - в просторечии; to maintain - поддерживать; warfare - война; guerrilla warfare - партизанская война; acquisition - приобретение; glass cockpit - стеклянная кабина; jam - заклинивание, заедание; fusion - сплав, слияние; awareness - понимание; workload - рабочая нагрузка; to feature - показывать
The cell phone as the computer
If you had been told ten years ago that by the end of 2007 there would be an international network of wirelessly-connected computers throughout the developing world, you might well have said it wasn’t possible. But it’s possible, and it is created, and it continues to expand.
We are talking, of course, about the mobile phone network.
Along with the internet, with which it is rapidly merging, this is the most astonishing technology story of our time, and one that has the power to revolutionise access to information across the developing world.
Imagine a system that lets managers at a national level, who probably do have access to the internet on a desktop computer, coordinate and transmit SMS-based continuing education messages to the computers — sorry, to the cell phones — of those health professionals. What a difference would that make to the level of up-to-date knowledge available to a clinic worker? And how would that impact the quality of care?
And what other groups might benefit from that kind of educational program? What about teachers? What about students?
So, it’s time that we recognised that for the majority of the world’s population, and for the foreseeable future, the cell phone is the computer, and the portal to the Internet, and the communications tool, and the schoolbook, and the vaccination record, and the family album, and many other things, just as soon as someone, somewhere, sits down and writes the software that allows these functions to be performed.
Using your voice to pilot your computer
An interdisciplinary team of scientists of the University of Washington (UW) has developed Vocal Joystick, a software which enables people with disabilities to control their computers using the sound of their voice and without the need to use a mouse. Their virtual computer mouse driven by sound has already been tested at the UW Medical Center with spinal-cord-injury patients and other participants with varying levels of disabilities. The researchers, who developed their own voice-recognition
technology, hope to have a prototype available online this fall. But read more.
So how does this software work? Here are some short excerpts from the Seattle Times mentioned in the introduction. “There are several options for people who needed accommodations in using computers, but the UW software is distinguished on several levels. For one, it doesn’t use standard voice-recognition technology. Instead, it detects basic sounds at about 100 times a second and harnesses them to generate fluid, adaptive cursor movement. Vocal-joystick researchers maintain the system is easier to use because it allows users to exploit a large set of sounds for both continuous and discrete movement and to make visual adjustments on the fly. Kurt L. Johnson, a professor in the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine at the UW, says he believes the software has great potential because it is easy to both learn and use.
Here are some more details about the Vocal Joystick voice- recognition technology engine. “The VJ system consists of three main components: acoustic signal processing, pattern recognition and motion control. First, the signal processing module extracts short-term acoustic features, such as energy, autocorrelation coefficients, linear prediction coeffients and mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). Signal conditioning and analysis techniques are needed for accurate estimation of these features. Next, these features are piped into the pattern recognition module, where energy smoothing, pitch and formant tracking, vowel classification and discrete sound recognition take place. This stage involves statistical learning techniques such as neural networks and dynamic Bayesian networks. Finally, energy, pitch, vowel quality and discrete sound become acoustic parameters to be transformed into direction, speed and other motion related parameters. The application driver takes the motion control parameters and launches corresponding actions.”
Vocal Joystick -"голосовой координатный манипулятор; spinal- cord-injury patients - пациенты с повреждением спинного мозга; voice recognition technology - технология распознания голоса; harnesses - аккумулирует; autocorrelation coefficients - коэффициент взаимозависимости.
MEMS — microelectromechanical system
Interest in creating MEMS grew in the 1980s, but it took nearly two decades to establish the design and manufacturing infrastructure needed for
their commercial development. One of the first products with a large market was the automobile air-bag controller, which combines inertia sensors to detect a crash and electronic control circuitry to deploy the air bag in response. Another early application for MEMS was in inkjet printheads. In the late 1990s, following decades of research, a new type of electronic projector was marketed that employed millions of micromirrors, each with its own electronic tilt control, to convert digital signals into images that rival the best traditional television displays. Emerging products include mirror arrays for optical switching in telecommunications, semiconductor chips with integrated mechanical oscillators for radiofrequency applications (such as cellular telephones), and broad range of biochemical sensors for use in manufacturing, medicine, and security.
MEMS are fabricated by using the processing tools and materials employed in integrated-circuit (IC) manufacturing. Typically, layers of polycrystalline silicon are deposited along with the so-called sacrificial layers of silicon dioxide or other materials. The layers are patterned and etched before the sacrificial layers are dissolved to reveal three-dimensional structures, including microscopic cantilevers, chambers, nozzles, wheels, gears, and mirrors. By building these structures with the same batch- processing methods used in IC manufacturing, with many MEMS on a single silicon wafer significant economies of scale have been achieved. Also, the MEMS components are in essence “built in place”, with no subsequent assembly required, in contrast to the manufacture of conventional mechanical devices.
A technical issue in MEMS fabrication concerns the order in which to build the electronic and mechanical components. High-temperature annealingis needed to relieve stress and warping of the polycrystalline- silicon layers, but it can damage any electronic circuits that have already been added. On the other hand, building the mechanical components first requires protecting these parts while the electronic circuitry is fabricated. Various solutions have been used, including burying the mechanical parts in shallow trenches prior to the electronics fabrication and then uncovering them afterward.
Barriers to further commercial penetration of MEMS include their cost compared with the cost of simpler technologies, nonstandardization of design and modeling tools, and the need for more reliable packaging. A current research focus is on exploring properties at nanometer dimensions (i. e., at billionths of a meter) for devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). At these scales the frequency of oscillation for structures increases (from megahertz up to gigahertz frequencies), offering new
design possibilities (such as for noise filters); however, the devices become increasingly sensitive to any defects arising from their fabrication.
The automobile air-bag controller — контроллер автомобильной воздушной подушки; inkjet printheads — струйные головки; own electronic tilt control — собственный электронный контроль наклона; layers of silicon dioxide — слои двуокиси кремния; a single silicon wafer — единственная силиконовая пластина; high-temperature annealing — высоко-температурный обжиг; shallow trenches — узкие канавки.
Contents Module I. Science and Technology Unit 1
Lesson 1. The progress of science in the 20th century 1—2
Lesson 2. Science in our life 3—4
Lesson 3. Science and technology nowadays 5—6
Lesson 4. Scientific research 7—9
Lesson 1. Electronics as a science 9—11
Lesson 2. What does solid-state mean in relation to electronics 11—14
Lesson 1. Science and computer technologies 14—18
Module II. Computer essentials Unit 1. Computer as it is
Lesson 1. Computers 18—21
Lesson 2. How computer works 21—26
Lesson 3. The computer revolution 27—30
Unit 2. Hardware
Lesson 1. Inside the computer case 30—33
Lesson 2. Processing 33—35
Lesson 3. Motherboard 35—36
Lesson 4. Buses and cards 37—38
Lesson 5. Power supply 38—39
Lesson 6. Hard disk 39—40
Unit 3. Storage devices
Lesson 1. Computer storage 40—42
Lesson 2. Magnetic storage 43—45
Lesson 3. Optical disks and drives 45—47
Unit 4. Peripherals Lesson 1. Monitor 47—48
Lesson 2.Input devices 49—52
Lesson 3. Mouse 52—54
Lesson 4. Touch screen 55
Lesson 5. Scanner 55—57
Lesson 6. Output devices 57—60
Unit 5. Basic software
Lesson 1. What is an operating system? 60—61
Lesson 2. A computer operating system 61—68
Lesson 3. Software 68—71
Lesson 4. Software engineering 71—75
Unit 6. Programming
Lesson 1. From the history of programming 75—76
Lesson 2. Coding and programming 76—80
Lesson 3. Stages in programming 80—83
Lesson 4. Programs 83—87
Lesson 5. Programming languages 87—91
Module III. Computer in use
Lesson 1. Computer system to suit any case 91—96
Lesson 2. The world-wide web 96—100
Lesson 3. Internet frequently asked questions 100—103
Lesson 4. The collectives of cyberspace 103—105
Lesson 5. Home computer 105—108
Module IV. Problems and prospects
Lesson 1. Will technical progress stop? 108—111
Lesson 2. The future of computers 111—115
Lesson 3. Internet security 115—117
Lesson 4. Computer crimes 117—119
Lesson 5. Computer games in education 119—120
Lesson 6. Talking to computers 120—122
Lesson 7. Will our children read book? 122—124
Science graduates 124
Bill Gates 126
Simple Windows tweaks to improve performance 127
Considerations before buying new computer hardware 129
Introduction to quantum computer operation 130
Computerized tomography 134
Character recognition 135
Plastic logic e-newspaper 135
Embedded computers 136
The cell phone as the computer 138
Using your voice to pilot your computer 139
MEMS — microelectromechanical system 140