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Методические указания и учебные задания по профессиональноориентированному чтению для студентов 2 курса технических специальностей


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НазваниеМетодические указания и учебные задания по профессиональноориентированному чтению для студентов 2 курса технических специальностей
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Lesson 4. Scientific research

l.Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

substantial - существенный, заметный

exploration - исследование

laypeople - дилетанты

to apply - применять , прилагать

solitary - уединённый

representative - представитель

participation - участие

to consume - потреблять

goal - цель

attribute - признак

to foster - способствовать

to involve - вовлекать, включать в себя

to employ - применять, использовать

  1. Read and translate the text.

Scientific research requires substantial funding, especially when it involves the use of expensive equipment. This funding often comes directly from governments. In the U.S., for example, it is the federal government that sponsors most national defense and space exploration projects.

Funding for science can also come from science foundations. In 1950, the U.S. Congress passed an act that established the National Science Foundation1. This independent federal agency develops a national science policy and supports scientific research and education. Two other well- known foundations that are involved in disease research are the American Cancer Society2 and the National Heart Association.

Research is also conducted and supported by private-sector industries that employ scientists — especially from the applied sciences — who work at the development of industrial or commercial processes and products. Scientific research is also supported by universities through professorships. Most professors do not just give classes but also conduct scientific research. Indeed, what many professors are looking for is the opportunity to work at a university where they can continue their own research. These are the professors whose students have the chance to observe real research at firsthand. Most universities specialize in certain fields and they are frequently judged on the achievements of their research professors. Scientists whose research findings are published and talked about in scientific circles bring prestige to the institution where they work.

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Laypeople often think of R&D (research and development) scientists as solitary figures working in a laboratory on some abstract problem. Though this may be true for a handful of scientists working on basic research, the vast majority work on R&D projects in teams. These project teams include not only scientists from various disciplines but also representatives from diverse functional groups within a company, for example, marketing, manufacturing, and human resources.

Formerly, R&D projects were passed from one group of specialists to another in serial fashion. The term “throwing it over the wall” was often used to describe this way of working, in which each stage of the process was isolated from the others. Research evidence showed that this method was neither efficient nor cost-effective because it was very timeconsuming.

Companies now bring together representatives from each stage of the process and, in this way, they try to achieve more cross-functional communication and participation. The goal is to coordinate processes better and to identify and avoid problems that otherwise might only be covered later. In order to work effectively in cross-functional project teams, scientists must have up-to-date knowledge of their technical fields and also skills in communication, problem-solving, and group decision-making — all necessary for successful teamwork. As a result, universities are now giving more importance to the development of these skills, and companies are looking for ways to foster these attributes in training programs for their employees.

Notes

‘The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health. With an annual budget of about $6.02 billion (fiscal year 2008), NSF funds approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States’ colleges and universities. In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science, economics and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing.

2American Cancer Society (ACS) is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy and service.

  1. Give the Russian equivalents.

Scientific research, expensive equipment, exploration projects, a

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national science policy, disease research, professorships, at firsthand, solitary figures, a handful of scientists, research evidence, time-consuming, up-to-date knowledge, to foster.

  1. Give the English equivalents.

Существенное финансирование, научные фонды, проводить научное исследование, исследование болезни, искать возможность, специализироваться в определенных областях, научные круги, горстка ученых, участие, техническая область, решение проблем, программы обучения.

  1. Translate the words of the same root. Define speech parts.

Science - scientific - scientifically - a scientist; to explore - an explorer - an exploration - explorative; to develop - a developer - development - developing - developed; to specialize - special - a specialist - a specialty; an achievement - to achieve - achievable; manufacturing - to manufacture - a manufacturer; a representative - to represent - representative - representation; to employ - an employer - an employee - employment - the (un)employed; commerce - commercial.

  1. Answer the following questions.

1. What are the financing sources of scientific research? 2. What is the role of science foundations? 3. Research is not supported by private- sector industries, is it? 4. How do the professors conduct and support scientific research? 5. What do laypeople often think of R&D scientists? 6.

What is the role of project teams? Why do they include scientists? 7. How do companies achieve more cross-functional communication and participation in research?

UNIT 2 Lesson 1. Electronics as a science

  1. Read the text for gist and retell it briefly.

Electronics as a science studies the properties of electrons, the laws of their motion, and the laws of transformation of various kinds of energy.

Electronics is a science, which deals with devices and instruments that are operated by the control of the movement of electric charges in a vacuum, in gasses, or in semiconductors; or with the processing of information or the control of energy by such devices. This definition covers the whole complex family of vacuum and gaseous electron tubes and their

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application. It also includes semiconductor and transistor technologies to process information or to convert energy. Without electronics we would not have cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. It is no mistake to compare the birth of electronics to such great achievements of mankind as the discovery of fire, and penetration into the secrets of the atom. Shortly speaking, electronics is not so much a new subject; it is rather a new way of looking at electricity.

  1. Read and translate the text.

Overview of electronic engineering

Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the electronic properties of such components as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.

Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. Signals can be either analog, in which case the signal varies continuously according to the information, or digital, in which case the signal varies according to a series of discrete values representing the information.

For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression, error checking and error detection of digital signals.

Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airplanes to the cruise control found in many modern cars. It also plays an important role in industrial automation.

Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in a car with cruise control the vehicle’s speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the engine’s power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.

  1. Find international terms and practice their pronunciation.

  2. Look through the text again and choose phrases or sentences with the most relevant information.

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V. Read the text and ask 3 or 4 questions of different types in writing.

Microelectronics

Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics which is related to the study and manufacture of electronic components which are very small. These devices are made from semiconductors using a process known as photolithography. Many components of normal electronic design are available in microelectronic equivalents: transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes and of course insulators and conductors can all be found in microelectronic devices.

Digital integrated circuits consist mostly of transistors. Analog circuits commonly contain resistors and capacitors as well. Inductors are used in some high frequency analog circuits; they occupy a large chip area if used at low frequencies.

As techniques improve, the sizes of microelectronic components continue to decrease. At smaller scales, the effects of minor circuit elements such as interconnections may become more important. These are called parasitic effects, and the goal of the microelectronics design engineer is to find ways to compensate for or to minimize these effects.

Notes

Parasitic effects
- паразитные явления (побочные, нежелательные явления, возникающие в схеме)

Lesson 2. What does solid-state mean in relation to electronics?

  1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

dashboard - приборная панель

pointer - стрелка, указка

camcorder - видеокамера

amplifier - усилитель

flow - поток

alternating current (AC)- переменный ток direct current (DC)- постоянный ток incandescent bulb - лампа накаливания fiber-optic - оптоволоконный

space probe - автоматическая межпланетная станция

reliable - надежный, достоверный

efficient - эффективный

steering - управление; a steering wheel - руль

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relative to - относящийся (к)

  1. Read and translate the text.

Solid-state electronic devices are part of our everyday lives. Solid- state miniature electronic components are in many places: the beeping sound made by a cell phone; auto dashboard alarm; the voice chip in an answering machine; TV remote control; laser pointer; the inside of an MP3 player; a quartz watch; the image sensor in a digital camera and a camcorder; the computer monitor, etc.

The transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Labs, was the first solid- state device to come into commercial use in the 1960s. Solid-state electronic devices have replaced vacuum tubes in just about all electronics devices. Vacuum tubes are still used in the transmitters of radio stations you listen to, many guitar amplifiers and some audiophile equipment. Vacuum tubes are the opposite of “solid-state” because tubes burnout, break, etc.

Solid-state gets its name from the path that electrical signals take through solid pieces of semi-conductor material. Prior to the use of solid- state devices, such as the common transistor, electricity passed through the various elements inside of a heated vacuum tube. Solid-state devices, such as a transistor, use conductors to control the flow of signals through a circuit.

Solid state devices called diodes have replaced rectifier vacuum tubes, used to transform AC to DC. Cool-running light-emitting diodes (LEDs), another solid-state device used for indicators on the front panel of your computer and monitor, have replaced the earlier incandescent bulbs. Multiple bright LEDs are also used for the third stoplight on many vehicles and for traffic signals.

Electrical engineers design computers and incorporate them into devices and systems. They design two-way communications systems such as telephones and fiber-optic systems, and one-way communications systems such as radio and television, including satellite systems. They design control systems, such as aircraft collision-avoidance systems, and a variety of systems used in medical electronics. Electrical engineers are involved with generation, control, and delivery of electric power to homes, offices, and industry. Electric power lights, heats, and cools working and living space and operates many devices used in homes and offices. Electrical engineers analyze and interpret computer-aided tomography data (CAT scans), seismic data from earthquakes and well drilling, and data from space probes, voice synthesizers, and handwriting recognition. They

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design systems that educate and entertain, such as computers and computer networks, compact-disk players, and multimedia systems.

The integration of communications equipment, control systems, computers, and other devices and processes into reliable, easily understood, and practical systems is a major challenge, which has given rise to the discipline of systems engineering. Electrical engineering must respond to numerous demands, including those for more efficient and effective lights and motors; better communications; faster and more reliable transfer of funds, orders, and inventory information in the business world; and the need of medical professionals for access to medical data and advice from all parts of the world.

Notes

A replaced rectifier vacuum tube
- заменяемая диодная вакуумная трубка; a cool-running light-emitting diode - холодный светоиспускающий диод; an aircraft collision-avoidance system - система предотвращения авиационных столкновений.

  1. Give the Russian equivalents.

Everyday lives, inventory, information, efficient and effective lights and motors, cell phone, solid-state device, semi-conductor material, heated vacuum tube, traffic signals, two-way communications systems, aircraft collision-avoidance systems, analyze and interpret, earthquake, electrical engineering.

  1. Give the English equivalents.

Полупроводниковое электронное устройство, автоответчик, датчик изображения, коммерческое использование, радиопередатчик, лампа накаливания, множество, рабочее и жилое пространство, космическая станция, распознавание рукописных текстов.

  1. Complete the sentences.

  1. Solid-state electronic devices have in just about all electronic

devices. 2. Solid-state devices, such as a transistor, use 3. Solid state

devices called diodes have 4. Electrical engineers design 5.

They design systems that educate and entertain, such as 6. Electrical

engineers analyze and interpret .

  1. Is it true or false?

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  1. Such common things as TV remote control, laser pointer or quartz watch contain solid-state miniature electronic components.

  2. The first solid-state device was invented in the 1960s.

  3. Vacuum tubes were replaced by solid-state electronic devices, but are still used in the transmitters of radio stations you listen to, many guitar amplifiers and some audiophile equipment.

  4. Incandescent bulbs are used for indicators on the front panel of your computer and monitor.

  5. Electrical engineers construct and analyse computers, control systems, telephones and fiber-optic systems, and one-way communications systems such as radio and television, including satellite systems.

  1. Answer the following questions.

1. What are solid-state electronic devices? 2. Where are solid-state miniature electronic devices used? 3. Who invented the transistor? 4. Why are solid-state devices better than vacuum tubes? 5. How light-emitting diodes may be used? 6. What do electrical engineers design? 7. Where is electric power used?

  1. Say what you’ve learned from the text about:

  1. the history of transistors; b) the work of vacuum tubes; c) the principles of electrical engineering.

UNIT 3 Lesson 1. Science and computer technologies

  1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: rate - темп, скорость well-being - благосостояние field - область

in recent years - в течение последних лет

to achieve - достигать

astonishing - изумительный

weapons - оружие

disaster - бедствие

take into consideration - принять во внимание

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outstanding - выдающийся thanks to - благодаря achievements - достижения atom fission - расщепление атома to injure - повредить to investigate - исследовать in this respect - в этом отношении to influence - влиять to warn - предупреждать

  1. Read and translate the text.

Is it that does us good or does it bring disaster?

Science is a source of progress. It develops the world we live in. Our century is an epoch of great discoveries in science and engineering. It is an epoch of scientific and technological revolution discoveries, when new ideas are being born and new discoveries, inventions are being made at an ever increasing rate.

Today science has become the most important factor in the development of national economy in the whole world. Scientific progress serves the interests of society, helps to increase the well-being of people and develops public education.

Computer technology plays the most important role in the progress of science. The ability of computers to solve many mathematical problems more effectively than man does, has given rise to new trends in mathematics. Computer science is a new field of study and research. In recent years scientists of the world have achieved great success in the development of physics, chemistry, biology, and such astonishing, interesting science as psychology. But science may be turned both for peace and military purpose. It can take good forms and evil forms. With the help of scientific inventions politicians make weapons of mass destruction. But on the other hand researches help us in our life: at home, at work, at school and make the level of the country development higher. That’s why there are a lot of facts telling about a great amount of well- known scientists who had burned their works when they’ve understood the consequences of their inventions.

To answer the question whether science does us good or does it bring disaster isn’t a simple task. We should take into consideration many facts. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Without scientific discoveries and

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inventions no progress would be possible. Thanks to discovery of electricity we can listen to the radio, watch TV, see films, people learned how to produce steel and metal alloys — now we use railways and airplanes. Development of chemistry led to new synthetic fibers and people got more clothing and food. People learned to use scientific achievements in curing incurable earlier diseases. But on the other hand such outstanding discoveries of the 20th century as atom fission led to creation of the weapons of mass destruction. We should say that science has a potential for both good and evil. Alfred Nobel invented a new explosive (dynamite) to improve the peacetime industries of road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. He was born in Stockholm on October 21st 1833, but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred began his own study of explosives in his father’s laboratory. He had never been to school or university, but had studied privately and by the time he was 20 was a skillful chemist and an excellent linguist, speaking Russian, English, German, French and Swedish. He was very imaginative and inventive. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause, until his death in 1896. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding discoveries in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals. Medical men use laser to cure and investigate diseases and at the same time laser can be used for destruction. Achievements of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to people. All this shows that science can take good forms and evil forms. What form does it take depends on the way people work with science. It is impossible to stop progress, to stop people to investigate and explore the world. But people should care it wouldn’t be led in wrong direction. Scientists need you thinking in a new much broader way than before. In this respect the education and cultural level are of great importance. They have to influence politicians, warn them of possible effects of using new discoveries. Scientists and politicians think that it’s their responsibility for not using scientific developments to cause damage and destruction. There is a lot of work to be done in this direction.

  1. Give the Russian equivalents.

Source of progress, an epoch of great discoveries, technological revolution discoveries, to cause damage and destruction, in a new much broader way than before, led in wrong direction, the peacetime industries

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of road building, a skillful chemist and an excellent linguist, to increase the well-being of people and develop public education, increasing rate.

  1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases.

Компьютерные технологии, играть важную роль, оружие массового уничтожения, выдающийся ученый и политик, мирное время, решать многие математические задачи, в течение последних лет, развитие и научные достижения, открытия, изобретения в области химии, невозможно остановить прогресс.

  1. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate word from the box.

Outstanding, influence, investigate, creation, discovery, achievements, invention, scientific

  1. It’s a particular branch of knowledge.

  2. He’s an English chemist whose work on radioactive disintegration led to the of isotopes.

  3. This is a document granting an inventor sole rights to a .

  4. There is an annual award for contributions to chemistry or

physics or psychology or medicine or literature or peace.

  1. . of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to

people.

  1. Outstanding discoveries of the 20th century such as atom fission led to of the weapons of mass destruction.

  2. The motion of charged particles in a colloid under the of an

electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative ones to the anode.

  1. It deals with the rational of questions about existence and

knowledge and ethics.

  1. Answer the following questions.

  1. Can you describe our century from the standpoint of scientific progress? 2. What is the role of computer technology in the progress of science? 3. Why did a great amount of well-known scientists burn their works? 4. Outstanding discoveries can take good forms and evil forms. Prove it. 5. What was Alfred Nobel’s famous will about? 6. What should

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