|The bulk of the “army” of users - основная масса “армии” пользователей: a bulky teletype operating staff - огромный штат по обслуживанию телетайпа; for the time being cannot make up your mind on - в настоящее время не можете решиться|
Give the Russian equivalents.
Telecommunication networks; domestic and foreign firms; information market; entrepreneurs; organizers of production; heaps of information; a reliable and fast communication; an access to the remote data banks; a permanent round-the-clock exchange of information; local network; owners of the data bases; to get linked with; to get an opportunity; throughout the world; the cost of transmitting data; approximately.
Give the English equivalents.
Получить возможность; требования к информации; финансовые ресурсы; проблема надежной связи; доступ к базе данных; острая конкуренция; стремительно развиваться; множество услуг; передача данных; стоимость зависит от расстояния; ведущая телекоммуникационная сеть; всемирная компьютерная система; соглашение; агентства новостей; предприниматель.
Change the following sentences into the passive.
1. Domestic and foreign firms offered a great number of services in communication and the transmission of information. 2. Most users have already discovered the world of telecommunications. 3. Computer systems can do a lot of useful operations. 4. Firms and individuals make the bulk of the “army” of users. 5. The global computer systems have to solve the problem of a reliable and fast communication. 6. The allotted lines will provide an opportunity for a permanent round-the-clock exchange of information. 7. Many managers had sent letters in envelopes in old manners
before new ways of sending massages were developed. 8. We are transmitting data in on-line regime at the moment.
Insert the missing words or word combination.
1. It will a few hours for your e-mail to be delivered to you in
regime. 2. A lot of useful operation with the help of the global
computer . 3. The information and telecommunications market in
Russia gave rise to among domestic and firms .4. In off-line
regime the data are transmitted less than in on-line . 5. Many
managers, entrepreneurs, organizers of production have got to choose
business and information from heaps of . 6. Many firms in Russia
have offered a great number of in computer communication and the
of information. 7. The cost of data depends on the distance. 8. The
information and market in Russia impetuously. 9. The cost of
transmitting data a few cents for a kilobyte.
Answer the following questions.
What services did domestic and foreign firms offer? 2. Why did a sharp competition appear among these firms? 3. What telecommunication network is the leading one in Russia? 4. How did people send letters and choose business and juridical information in the past? 5. What can help you to solve the problem of a reliable and fast communication? 6. What will the allotted lines provide? 7. What is the difference between on-line and offline regimes? 8. How can you use your address in the electronic mail? 8. What opportunity gives you the address in the electronic mail? 9. How much time does it take for your electronic mail to be delivered in off-line regimes?
Give a brief summary of the above text.
Read the text and translate it without a dictionary. Write a short summary of it.
Application of personal computers
Personal computers have a lot of applications, however, there are some major categories of applications: home and hobby, word processing, professional, educational, small business and engineering and scientific.
Home and hobby. Personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. They are an exciting hobby. All hobbyists need not be engineers or programmers. There are many games that use the
full capabilities of a computer to provide many hours of exciting leisuretime adventure.
The list of other home and hobby applications of PCs is almost endless, including: checking account management, budgeting, personal finance, planning, investment analyses, telephone answering and dialing, home security, home environment and climate control, appliance control, calendar management, maintenance of address and mailing lists and what not.
Word processing. At home or at work, applications software, called a word processing program enables you to correct or modify any document in any manner you wish before printing it. Using the monitor as a display screen, you are able to view what you have typed to correct mistakes in spelling or grammar, add or delete sentences, move paragraphs around, and replace words. The letter or document can be stored for future use.
Professional. The category of professional includes persons making extensive use of word processing, whose occupations are particularly suited to the desk-top use of PCs. Examples of other occupations are accountants, financial advisors, stock brokers, tax consultants, lawyers, architects, engineers, educators and all levels of managers. Applications programs that are popular with persons in these occupations include accounting, income tax preparation, statistical analysis, graphics, stock market forecasting and computer modeling. The computer modeling program is widely used by professionals. It can be used for scheduling, planning, and the examination of “what if“ situations.
Educational. Personal computers are having and will continue to have a profound influence upon the classroom, affecting both the learner and the teacher. Microcomputers are making their way into classrooms to an ever-increasing extent giving impetus to the design of programmed learning materials that can meet the demands of student and teacher.
Two important types of uses for personal computers in education are computer-managed instruction (CMI), and computer-assisted instruction (CAI). CMI software is used to assist the instructor in the management of all classroom-related activities, such as record keeping, work assignments, testing, and grading. Applications of CAI include mathematics, reading, typing, computer literacy, programming languages, and simulations of real-world situations.
exciting leisure-time adventure — увлекательное приключение в свободное время; stock market forecasting — прогнозирование рынка
акций; an ever-increasing extent — в возрастающей степени; impetus — толчок, импульс; work assignments — задания; grading — сортировка, распределение
Lesson 2. The world-wide web
Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: database - база данных
to store - хранить
to aware - осознавать
implementation - внедрение
to rely on - полагаться на
remote - действующий на расстоянии
ignorant - неосведомленный, не знающий
particular reference - определенная ссылка
Read and translate the text.
People have dreamt of a universal information database since the late 1940s. In this database, not only would the data be accessible to people around the world, but it would also easily link to other pieces of information, so that only the most important data would be quickly found by a user. Only recently the new technologies have made such systems possible. The most popular system currently in use is the World-Wide Web (WWW) which began in March 1989. The Web is an Internet-based computer network that allows users on one computer to access information stored on another through the world-wide network.
As the popularity of the Internet increases, people become more aware of its colossal potential. The World-Wide Web is a product of the continuous search for innovative ways of sharing information resources. The WWW project is based on the principle of universal readership: “if information is available, then any person should be able to access it from anywhere in the world.” The Web’s implementation follows a standard client-server model. In this model, a user relies on a program (the client) to connect to a remote machine (the server), where the data is stored. The architecture of the WWW is the one of clients, such as Netscape, Mosaic, or Lynx, “which know how to present data but not what its origin is, and servers, which know how to extract data”, but are ignorant of how it will be presented to the user.
One of the main features of the WWW documents is their hypertext structure. On a graphic terminal, for instance, a particular reference can be
Read the following international words, guess their meanings and derive nouns and adjectives from them.
represented by underlined text, or an icon. “The user clicks on it with the mouse, and the referenced document appears.” This method makes copying of information unnecessary: data needs only to be stored once, and all referenced to it can be linked to the original document.
Netscape Navigator— шестой по популярности в мире браузер, производившийся компанией Netscape Communications с 1994 по 2007 год, последние версии на основе движка браузера Mozilla Firefox. Версии Netscape до четвертой были основными конкурентами Internet Explorer, версии 6—7.2 были основаны на Mozilla Application Suite.
Mosaic — это первый веб-браузер под операционную систему Microsoft Windows (тогда ещё MS-DOS с графической оболочкой MS Windows 3) с графическим интерфейсом пользователя и развитыми возможностями, на котором основаны и Netscape Navigator, и Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Lynx — один из первых текстовых браузеров.
Give the Russian equivalents.
Database, around the world, to be stored, continuous search, to be accessible, implementation, to rely on something, to be ignorant, features, particular reference, underlined text, referenced documents, unnecessary.
Find in the text the English equivalents of the following Russian words and phrases.
Внедрение, распределение, хранение информации, база данных, ссылка, инновационный путь, доступный, поиск, связывать, обмениваться информацией.