|full-fledged — окончательно готовый, полностью отработанный (напр., о разработанной системе программного обеспечения); enhancement — модернизация; совершенствование; расширение (напр., возможностей программных средств); behind-the-scenes — негласный|
Say what you have learnt from the text about Windows Vista.
Ask your group-mates 10 questions on the text.
Select the topical sentences in each paragraph of the text.
Retell the text.
Read and translate the text.
GUI operating systems The term “user interface” refers to the standard procedures that the user follows in order to interact with a computer. In the late 1970s and early 80s, the way users accessed computer systems was very complex. They had to memorize and type a lot of commands just to see the contents of a disk, to copy files or to respond to a single prompt. In fact, it was only experts who used computers, so there was no need for a user-friendly interface.
When computers were first introduced in the 1940s and 50s, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex, and time-consuming. Programmers soon
realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer’s hardware, which other programs could have used when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.
Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.
DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for “Microsoft DOS”. When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users’ perspective, PC- DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.
The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.
Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC’s memory management capabilities.
OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS/2 preinstalled.
In 1984, Apple produced the Macintosh, the first computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI). Macs were designed with one clear aim: to facilitate interaction with the computer. A few years later, Microsoft launched Windows, another operating system based on graphics and intuitive tools. Nowadays, computers are used by all kinds of people, and as a result there is a growing emphasis on accessibility and user- friendly systems.
A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment: windows, icons, menus and pointer. The background of the screen is called the desktop, which contains labeled pictures and icons. These icons represent files or folders. Double-clicking a folder opens a window which contains programs, documents, or more nested folders. When in folder, a user can launch a program or document by double-clicking the icon, or drag it to another location. When running a program PC opens a window that lets one work with different tools. All the programs have a high level of consistency, with similar toolbars, menu bars, buttons and dialogue boxes. A modern OS also provides access to networks and allows multitasking, which means running several programs — and do various tasks — at the same time.
The most popular operating systems are:
•The Windows family — designed by Microsoft and used on most PCs. The most recent version is Windows Vista.
•Mac OS — created by Apple and used on Macintosh computers.
•Unix — a multi-user system, found on mainframes and workstations in corporate installations.
•Linux — open-source software developed under the GNU General public License. This means anybody can copy its source code, change it and distribute. It is used in computers, appliances and small devices.
•Windows Mobile — used on most PDAs and smartphones (PDAs incorporating mobile phones).
•Palm OS — used on Palm handed devices.
•RIM — used on BlackBerry communication devices. Developed by Research In Motion.
•The Symbian OS — used by some phone makers, including Nokia and Siemens.
These computer platforms differ in areas such as device installation, network connectivity or compatibility with application software.
Translate these terms into Russian. Use the dictionary or the Internet to help you.
User interface, procedure, tools, desktop, nested folders, launch a program, source code.
Read the text again and decide which adjectives in the list describe a GUI best.
User-friendly; slow; accessible; text-based; intuitive; complex; graphics-based.
Answer the questions.
What kind of OS was used in the early 80s: text-based or graphics- based? 2. What was the contribution of Macintosh computers to the development of graphic environments? 3. What does acronym WIMP stand for? 4. How do you run a program on a computer with a graphical interface? 5. What is multitasking? 6. Which multi-user OS is used on large, powerful computers? 7. What is the benefit of using open-source software, for example Linux? 8. Which Macintosh platform is used for pocket PCs, mobiles and portable media centers? 9. What does user- friendly mean? 10. Do you think most OS are user-friendly? Give your reasons.
Lesson 3. Software
I. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to distinguish — отличать, различать, выделять, проводить различие
to encompass — охватывать, включать, заключать (в себе) to signify — выражать, показывать, означать, быть признаком to insulate — отделять, обособлять to precede — предшествовать, предварять to blur — делать неясным, затуманивать to accomplish — совершать, выполнять, исполнять arbitrary — условный, случайный, произвольный accessory — дополнительный, вспомогательный, сопутствующий
feature — признак, черта, свойство, особенность, характеристика
debugger — программа отладки ordered sequence of instructions — упорядоченная последовательность инструкций
Read and translate the text.
Computer software or just software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. Software includes websites, programs, video games etc. that are coded by programming languages like C, C++, etc. “Software” is sometimes used in a broader context to mean anything which is not hardware but which is used with hardware, such as film, tapes and records.
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, software consists of a machine language specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions which change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code.
Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.
System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes: device drivers, diagnostic tools, operating systems, servers, utilities, windowing systems. The purpose of systems software is to insulate the applications programmer as much as possible from the details of the particular computer complex being used, especially memory and other hardware features, and such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc.
Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include: compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, text editors.
Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (non-computer related) tasks. Typical applications include: industrial automation, business software, computer games, databases, educational software, medical software and etc. Businesses are probably the biggest users of application software, but almost every field of human activity now uses some form of application software.
System software - системное программное обеспечение (в отличие от прикладного); programming software - программное обеспечение для программирования; application software - прикладная программа; прикладное программное обеспечение; программа специального применения; utility - утилита (сервисная программа, обслуживающая программа, облегчающая работу с компьютером или пользование какими-либо другими программами)
Give the Russian equivalents.
To be used in a broader context; to distinguish from; to encompass the physical interconnections; to store and execute (or run); software preceding state; as much as possible; to insulate from; hardware features; accessory devices; to assist a programmer; groups of binary values; ordered sequence of instructions; high-level programming languages; closer to natural language; system software; programming software; application software; device drivers; diagnostic tools.
Give the English equivalent.
Программное обеспечение для программирования; прикладная программа; вспомогательные устройства; делать неясным; системное программное обеспечение; упорядоченная последовательность инструкций; произвольный; отличать от; характеристика; программа отладки; предшествующий; компилятор; текстовый редактор; выполнять некоторые задачи; заключать (в себе).
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form from the box.