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    МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

    Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет Аэрокосмического приборостроения»

    A BOOK OF SCIENCE AND COMPUTERS

    Методические указания и учебные задания по профессионально-ориентированному чтению для студентов 2 курса технических специальностей





    Санкт-Петербург

    2010



    УДК 8А (075)

    ББК 81.2 Англ. яз. 73

    Составители: И.И. Громовая, А.М. Данилкина, М.В. Мальцева, С.В. Скалецкая, П.М. Эйсмонт, Е.А. Люторович, Н.А. Жиганова, Д.С. Исаева, И.В. Вихриева, В.В. Постникова

    Под редакцией И.И. Громовой


    Рецензент: О.В. Злобина

    Учебные задания составлены на основе аутентичных материалов профессиональных английских и американских изданий и Интернет-ресурсов и предназначены для студентов 2 курса 1-5 и 7 факультетов технических специальностей.

    Цель пособия - научить чтению и пониманию оригинальной литературы, способствовать формированию лингвистических навыков в данной отрасли знаний.

    Подготовлены кафедрой иностранных языков и рекомендованы к изданию редакционно-издательским центром Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета аэрокосмического приборостроения.

    Верстальщик А.Н. Колешко

    Сдано в набор 15.10.10. Подписано к печати 21.11.10. Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. л. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ № Компьютерная верстка И. И. Громовой


    Редакционно-издательский центр СПбГУАП 190000, Санкт-Петербург, Б. Морская ул., 67

    © Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет аэрокосмического приборостроения (ГУАП), 2010

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    MODULE I. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

    UNIT 1

    Lesson 1. The progress of science in the 20th century

    1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: development - развитие, разработка

    invention -
    изобретение discovery - открытие human being - человек satellite - космический спутник to solve - решать

    to calculate - вычислять, подсчитывать to set free - высвобождать

    1. Practise reading the following international words. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

    Arctic, airplane, present, automatically, machine, medicine, giant, to duplicate, civilization, atom, process, energy.

    1. Read and translate the text.

    There have been great changes in the life surroundings and the conditions of human beings during the past century. Less than a hundred years ago many of the things that we do now were thought to be impossible. For example, flying and other things, like listening to music from thousands of miles away in the radio, would certainly have been thought impossible if people had ever imagined them. Radio and television are no longer just inventions that bring pleasure and amusement to our homes. By means of radio and television we can do an endless number of jobs: call doctors to far-off places in the Arctic, help airplanes to land automatically in bad weather, direct the work of a dozen machines at once, or guide the flight of rockets and sputniks in space.

    Among the most important scientific discoveries are new medicines. Several serious illnesses, from which 50 years ago people used to die, can be cured quite easily. It is true that some of the serious illnesses still can’t be cured but it will not be long before scientists succeed in finding means to do away with them.

    One of the wonders of our age is the “electronic brain”, or the giant calculating machine, which can to some extent duplicate human senses.

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    These machines can feel, touch, smell, hear and see. They can solve mathematical problems many times faster than a human mathematician and are widely used in our country for calculating the orbits of satellites and spaceships. With the help of an electronic calculation machine Russian scientists succeeded in reading the writings of the Mayas, the ancient civilization of Mexico.

    Perhaps the most wonderful discovery of the twentieth century has been the splitting of the atom. The process of splitting the atom is called nuclear fission. When atoms split they set free a tremendous amount of energy. Men are learning to put this energy to use.

    Notes

    By means of
    - посредством; to do away with - покончить, положить конец; to some extent - в некоторой степени; to split - расщепить; nuclear fission - ядерное деление.

    1. Give the Russian equivalents.

    Spaceship, invention, a mathematician, medicine, to spit the atom, impossible, satellites, development, to duplicate, to succeed, endless.

    1. Give the English equivalents.

    Математические задачи, вычислительная машина, спутник, вычислять, эра, отдаленный, количество, автоматически, человек, достижение.

    1. Translate the words of the same root. State what parts of speech they are.

    To change - a change; to surround - surroundings; to imagine - an image - imagination; possible - impossible; to invent - an invention - an inventor; to amuse - amusing - amusement; to end - an end - endless; to discover - a discovery; ill - illness; to succeed - success - successful - successfully.

    1. Answer the following questions.

    1. What changes can we see in our life? 2. How are radio and television used now? 3. How can recent scientific discoveries help in medicine? 4. What is the “electronic brain”? 5. What can the “electronic brain” do? 6. What is the most wonderful discovery of the 20th century? 7. What do you consider to be the main scientific discovery of the 20th century? 8. Can you give any other example of new discoveries?

    1. Give a brief summary of the above text.

    4


    Lesson 2. Science in our life

    1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to increase - увеличивать

    device
    - устройство, прибор

    electric engineering - электротехника

    radio engineering - радиотехника

    to design - разрабатывать

    artificial intellect - искусственный интеллект

    branch - отрасль

    to equip - оборудовать

    launching - запуск

    1. Practise reading the following words. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

    Social, industrial, aspect, thermonuclear, radar, experiment, supercomputer, submarine, intellect, interplanetary.

    1. Read and translate the text.

    Today we see that science has great influence on social, industrial and political aspects of our life. The development of science has increased man’s knowledge of nature. Modern experimental science began about 400 year ago. The man learned to use the energy of fire and water. Later, the man made steam serve him. Nowadays, the man uses thermonuclear energy. Not a day passes without the appearance of a new electronic device. The first great progress in electronics came with the invention of the vacuum tube or valve in 1904. It made broadcasting possible. The development of electronics during World War II gave us radars and electronic computers. The first general purpose computer for scientific use was invented in 1949. Today computers have become common. Computers can conduct experiments in places which are too dangerous for people. Some computers are used in caves and mines to replace workers. Besides they can be designed for special purposes. They can solve mathematical problems, make bank operations, and play chess. New supercomputers solve problems in many branches of industry, science and culture. They are widely used in submarine navigation and in modern medicine. Now much is being done to create artificial intellect. Science has brought into being new atomic technologies. Electric engineering and radio engineering have been created in the same way.

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    Science and technology have achieved great progress in space research. There have been space flights, the launching of interplanetary stations in the direction of Mars, radar contacts with the planets Mercury and Venus.

    Science enters our homes. Many people have already forgotten what the world was like before television. Several generations of children have grown up with TV as a baby-sitter, a teacher and a companion. A lot of kitchens in our apartments are so well equipped that they look like a control room. We are so used to all these things that we can’t imagine our life without science.

    Notes

    Thermonuclear energy
    - термоядерная энергия; not a day passes without... - ни дня не проходит без...; a vacuum tube - электронная лампа; a general purpose computer - универсальный компьютер, компьютер общего назначения; to bring into being - привести к появлению.

    1. Give the Russian equivalents.

    Development, thermonuclear, appearance, invention, to conduct experiments, general purpose, artificial intellect, technology, launching, to equip, control room.

    1. Give the English equivalents.

    Проводить эксперименты, электронное устройство, телевещание, хорошо оборудованный, в направлении, решать задачи, отрасль промышленности, радиотехника, управление, исследование, электротехника, искусственный интеллект, развитие.

    1. Answer the following questions.

    1. Why is science so important? 2. What kinds of energy can the man use? 3. When did the first computer appear? What was it like? 4. What kinds of computers are described in this text? What do you know about them? 5. How do computers help scientists? 6. What are the spheres of applications of computers in modern life? 7. How are computers used in space research? 8. Do children use computers nowadays? How?

    1. Prove that computers are widely used in modern life.

    2. What is a general purpose computer? A special purpose computer? A supercomputer? What do you know about an analog computer? A digital computer? A hybrid computer?

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    Lesson 3. Science and technology nowadays

    1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations: to overestimate - переоценивать

    to apply
    - применять

    ancestor - предок

    trivial- тривиальный

    combustion - сгорание

    gravity - притяжение, сила тяжести

    to embrace - охватывать

    to arouse - пробуждать

    to disclose - раскрыть

    responsibility - ответственность

    be grateful - быть благодарным

    1. Read and translate the text.

    It’s difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our cooperation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the Universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

    Let’s compare our life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn’t the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our every day life. They are refrigerators, TV sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones... They would seem miracles to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant.

    On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century such as radio, airplanes, combustion and jet engines, have become usual things and we can’t imagine our life without them. A century is a long period for scientific and technological progress, as it’s rather rapid. Millions of investigations, the endless number of outstanding discoveries have been made. The 20th century had several names that were connected with a certain era in science and technology. At first it was called the atomic age due to the discovery of the splitting of the atom.

    Then it became the age of the conquest of space of when for the first time in the history of mankind a man overcame the gravity and entered the Universe. And now we live in the information era when the computer

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    network embraces the globe and connects not only the countries and space stations but a lot of people all over the world. All these things prove the power and the greatest progressive role of science in our life. But every medal has its reverse. And the rapid scientific progress has aroused a number of problems that are a matter of our great concern. These are ecological problems, the safety of nuclear power stations, the nuclear war threat, and the responsibility of a scientist. But still we are grateful to the outstanding men of the past and the present who have courage and patience to disclose the secrets of the Universe.

    1. Give the Russian equivalents.

    The development of civilization, a recognition, the slightest idea, to mean, an invention, jet engines, rapid, investigation, an outstanding discovery, the splitting of the atom, the conquest of space, the nuclear war threat, to disclose the secrets, a matter of our great concern.

    1. Give the English equivalents.

    Реактивные двигатели, угроза ядерной войны, ускорять, сотрудничество, Вселенная, улучшать жизнь, двигатели внутреннего сгорания, реактивные двигатели, выдающиеся открытия, атомный век, человечество, эра, земной шар, обратная сторона медали, безопасность, быть благодарным, раскрыть тайны.

    1. Answer the following questions.

    1. What accelerates the development of civilization? 2. Who investigates the laws of the Universe, discover the secrets of nature? 3. What are trivial things that we use in our every day life? 4. What names did

    the 20th century have? 5. Why was the 20th century called the age the

    conquest of space? 6. We live in the information era of the computer network, don’t we? 7. What problems have been aroused with the rapid scientific progress?

    1. Discuss the following.

    1. The role of modern technologies in the development of our society.

    2. The great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century.

    3. Our century is called the atomic age.

    4. Our century is the age of the conquest of space.

    5. Our century is the age of information.

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